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This past summer, I was a Curatorial Intern at Historic Deerfield, which is an outdoor museum dedicated to the history and culture of the Connecticut River Valley and New England. It is made up of a series of antique houses, some that are interpreted to various periods in the 18th and 19th centuries and some set up with thematic exhibits. I worked in the Curatorial Department in the Flynt Center of Early New England Life—Historic Deerfield’s modern museum facility—under the supervision of the Collections Manager, Kate Kearns. We undertook two projects: the first was completing an inventory of all objects in viewable storage in the attic of the Flynt Center and the second entailed designing and fabricating custom storage mounts to rehouse the shoe collection.

The inventory was a daunting undertaking. Moving case by case, shelf by shelf, we examined over 3,000 objects. We cross-referenced the objects present on each shelf with a printout from the database. These objects ranged from forks to chairs, teacups to clocks. I checked off objects that were in the correct location, took note of objects that were on the shelf but missing from the list, and marked as missing objects that were not actually where they were supposed to be. After each session I would return to the computer to update each object’s record, to verify or update its location. I was surprised by how many objects ended up being missing (many showing up in later cases), and how many objects that were previously marked as missing were right there on the shelf (those records were particularly satisfying to update). 

This was the first comprehensive inventory done on the viewable storage cases in several years. I realized just how challenging it is to keep tabs on every single last item with a small staff and thousands of objects in the collection, some of which are frequently moving around for study, photography, loans, or special exhibits.

I also learned about the nitty-gritty logistics of collections management, from keeping track of different numbering systems used over the decades to accessing a particular case only before the museum opens to the public as not to obstruct the entrance to the elevator. Throughout this process, I became proficient in Mimsy XG, the collections management system shared by the Five Colleges and Historic Deerfield Museum Consortium. Many times, I had to split one record into multiples, like for tea sets or matching cutlery, so that individual objects could be separately described and tracked. 

I found myself frequently thinking about the cataloging work I did last spring for the Hadley Farm Museum in Prof. Marla Miller’s Museum Studio Practicum. Those of us in the class each chose about 50 objects to document, research, and create records for. The goal was to update the museum’s catalogue from a list typed in the 1960s and added to by hand in a spiral notebook. Even with the amount of time we collectively put into this project, we only but began this large undertaking.

Often, I had to pry myself away from artifact analysis to keep working through the objects. As an archaeologist trained in close observation and materials analysis, I wanted to find out everything I could about each object. The ketchup bottle had a particular scar on the bottom and number stamped in. What machine was it made on and in which factory? I noticed that one pair of ice skates was made from a cut bar of steel. Was it mass-produced as opposed to the other, more carefully handcrafted pairs? These questions for the most part had to be sidelined in order to accomplish the task of cataloguing my share of objects in a reasonable amount of time. 

Museums are so important as repositories and stewards of material culture. I knew this going into the summer, but I did not yet appreciate the magnitude of objects management and care. 

At Historic Deerfield, I also worked on a preventative conservation project where I designed and fabricated custom storage mounts for thirty-four pairs of shoes, approximately one third of the shoe collection. The shoes were in need of attention, housed on crowded shelves and some sagging under their own weight. Kate, along with Ned Lazaro, Curator of Textiles, had identified the shoe collection as a priority for some preventative care and rehousing and I was excited to put my crafting and sewing skills to use. I am proud of the quality of the mounts I created, but am very conscious of the shoes that I did not get to. 

Conservation is an ongoing, iterative process. Museum collections must be frequently reevaluated as they age and within the context of evolving best practices. But given the realities of limited time, staff, and/or money, prioritization becomes a crucial skill to practice.

I’ve been thinking about the concept of prioritization, as well as the volume of collections in museums such as Historic Deerfield, from the perspective of an archaeologist and researcher. Archaeologists approach material culture with different questions than a curator. Context is very important for archaeologists. Historic furniture, decorative arts, and textiles that have changed hands, been bought, sold, collected and never excavated lack archaeological context and sometimes lack any provenance at all. Can archaeologists shift the kinds of questions they ask, and their mindsets, to reduce the amount of destructive excavations? Why are we unearthing more and more artifacts to catalogue, document, and care for in perpetuity while there are so many objects—metal, wood, glass, ceramic—gathering dust on shelves? Can archaeological materials analysis instead focus more on museum collections?

When I was a graduate student in the Archaeological Materials program in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT, I took a two-semester series on Materials in Ancient Societies. The theme for the year was metals. For the lab component of the course, we teamed up with the Department of Conservation and Collections Management at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston to carry out a metallurgical analysis of Nubian mummy-eye inlays in their Ancient Egyptian collection. These were metal frames in the shape of eyes that were inserted into wooden coffins.

I destructively analyzed one metal eye inlay by cutting it into two pieces to reveal a cross-section of the object’s interior. This artifact had been in storage for almost a century. It had never been put on display, and was likely never going to be. The staff at the MFA had decided that the benefits of studying it metallurgically and chemically outweighed the irreversible act of cutting a piece of it off. I determined that the metal was a copper-tin bronze and it was cast into the shape of an eye using a mold. It was a low-quality cast, cooled slowly, and it was not subsequently worked. Our research contributed to understanding the method of production of these metal objects and, in a small way, towards grasping the ritual significance associated with the tombs of Nubian royalty.

In what ways can such partnerships be promoted and fostered between archaeologists and museums of history and art? We should consider how, in the field of archaeology, excavating new sites could be deemphasized with a focus instead turning to existing collections. At the same time, what is the best way to start the conversation with curators and collections managers on the benefits of conducting scientific investigations of (and perhaps destructively sampling) an accessioned object?

Danielle’s summer internship at Historic Deerfield was made possible by a Dr. Charles K. Hyde Public History Intern Fellowship. To read more about the shoe mounting and rehousing project, check out Danielle’s post on the Historic Deerfield Blog from August 22, 2019: https://www.historic-deerfield.org/blog/2019/8/22/gaining-a-foothold-on-the-shoe-collection

Danielle Raad is a Public History Graduate Certificate Candidate and PhD student in Anthropology, UMass Amherst

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Thousands Attend Feinberg Family Distinguished Lecture Series on Revolutionary Visions, Past and Present

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Made possible through the generosity of alumnus Kenneth R. Feinberg ’67 and associates, the Feinberg Family Distinguished Lecture Series is one of the History Department’s signature offerings. The series explores contemporary social and policy issues in historical perspective. Each iteration hones in on a topic of pressing interest to faculty, students, and community members, using sustained and critical historical analysis to deepen our collective understandings.

Marking the 50th anniversary of the mass movements of 1968, last year’s series explored the theme “Another World Is Possible: Revolutionary Visions, Past and Present.” Sigrid Schmalzer, who co-chaired the series with Kevin Young and Jess Johnson, explained, “From climate change to white supremacism to the threat of nuclear war, the future of our society feels increasingly uncertain. But history is filled with precarious situations and uphill battles, and social movements around the world have faced those challenges and dared to envision new worlds based on equity and justice. We focused on this theme so that we might learn from how such movements imagined the future—and how they have worked to create it.”

In order to foster critical conversation on the history of mass social movements and their visions for political transformation, many of the events brought together historians and movement leaders or featured presenters whose work straddles both worlds. The series kicked off in September with a conversation on the reemergence of the black radical imagination, putting organizers Mary Hooks (Southerners on New Ground) and Kali Akuno (Cooperation Jackson) in conversation with historians Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor (Princeton) and Toussaint Losier (UMass Amherst). The following week featured a panel with Carlos Henríquez Consalvi and Rosa Rivera, two participants in the Salvadoran Revolution who now lead community-based public memory projects in El Salvador.

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Later that month, Rev Dr. William J. Barber II delivered the keynote address and inaugural James Baldwin Lecture, established by Allen J. Davis ’68.  In an event that drew some 1300 people to the Fine Arts Center, Barber, who is co-chair of the national Poor People’s Campaign and a MacArthur Genius Award winner, discussed the history of Reconstruction that followed Emancipation and the “second” Reconstruction of the 1960s. He then made the case for a “third” Reconstruction in the twenty-first century, entailing “a profoundly moral awakening of justice-loving people united in a fusion coalition powerful enough to reclaim the possibility of democracy.”

Throughout the fall, events continued to demonstrate the significance of historical inquiry for understanding current political movements. In “Imagining Community, Living in Community,” panelists found connections between the Socialist-Zionist kibbutzim of the early twentieth century and 1970s back-to-the-land communities in Vermont, and between Sojourner Truth’s 1840s abolitionist society in Florence, MA, and a current anti-racist intentional community in New York state. A panel titled “Dreams and Nightmares” juxtaposed leftist and rightist movements from around the world (including Nazi Germany, Maoist China, the Salvadoran revolution, and Modi-era India) to ask tough questions about why fundamentally oppressive visions have appeared liberatory to some people, and how movements for liberation have often resulted in maintaining or creating new forms of oppression.  

Another panel showcased the ways in which historians are collaborating with activists to explore how historical perspectives can be harnessed in movements for social change, and what historians can learn from today’s activists; Smith College historian Jennifer Guglielmo together with incoming UMass Amherst faculty member Diana Sierra Becerra spoke alongside Linda Burnham (National Domestic Workers Alliance), and Monique Tú Nguyen (Matahari Women Workers’ Center), about (among other things) the powerful ways in which digital timelines of visionary domestic worker organizing to build feminist economies are being used to support domestic workers as they learn about, and engage, the long history of their struggle.  Other events included a lecture on the history of science fiction and social change; a zine-making workshop for high school students on sparking historical creativity; an event exploring Venezuela’s communes in historical perspective; and a dialogue between two historians on the ways enslaved and formerly enslaved African American women conceived and experienced freedom.

“As a 2018 UMass Amherst alum, the Feinberg Family Distinguished Lecture Series was one of my main connections back to campus last year. The richly contextual histories presented on subjects ranging from Salvadoran revolutionaries, to domestic worker organizing, to the experiences of enslaved African American women, brought new insights and understandings to the underpinnings of this current political moment. Coupled with more participatory events, I was elated that this series brought politically relevant histories and the critical questions of our time to community members and students throughout the Pioneer Valley.”

Most of the fall semester events were panels and lectures. In the spring term, the focus shifted to hands-on workshops. For example, participants aged 8 to 80 explored Mesoamérica Resiste, a narrative poster depicting 500 years of colonialism and resistance, created in part through a nine-year oral history project. The series capstone in Holyoke turned the tables, featuring community members as workshop facilitators.

To facilitate engagement on our campus, 34 UMass and Five College departments and programs co-sponsored the series. Taught by co-chair Kevin Young, the Department of History’s official Feinberg course, “New Approaches to History: Revolutionary Visions, Past and Present,” provided an opportunity for students to deepen their learning while earning General Education credit in history. The course examined when and how revolutionaries have improved society, where they have failed, and why some radical projects have been emancipatory and others oppressive. “I really enjoyed the fact that this course surveyed a lot of different revolutionary movements,” noted an undergraduate enrolled in the class. “Most History majors don’t get exposure to revolutionary movements outside their particular region or theme of interest. This unique course was really valuable in that aspect.” Twenty-two additional UMass and Five College courses — including ten history department classes — were officially affiliated with the series, and numerous others incorporated class field trips to Feinberg Series events into their course syllabi.

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Building on the successful 2016 series on mass incarceration and taking up the charge of the UMass Amherst Campus Strategic Plan, the series prioritized community engagement and outreach. We are proud that upwards of 20 community organizations collaborated with the history department as official co-sponsors of the series!

Alongside members of the history department, community members were involved at every stage: as part of the team that envisioned the series and helped us choose specific event themes; as tablers at events; as panelists on stage alongside nationally and internationally renowned scholars; as the designers and artists who created the series mailer and posters; and as active partners in promoting local engagement with the series. Multiple community groups even organized buses of local K-12 students, community members, and retirement community residents to the various events.

“Since moving to Massachusetts, the Feinberg Series has been one of the most incredible, engaging, and stimulating events in the area — and, frankly — that I have stumbled upon anywhere. Being able to learn from such dynamic thinkers on the most important issues that we face today was an incredible opportunity that has not only deepened my understanding of the world we live in, but also contributed to my work as a coordinator and researcher on a local and international level. The Feinberg Series is truly the nexus for leading intellectual discussions and debate that are crucial for our time. As it came to an end, I was saddened to learn that the theme changes every year, and I hope to be able to attend similar events this coming year and beyond.”

To facilitate attendance by diverse audiences, the series hosted events not only at UMass but also in community venues, offered family-friendly accommodations, conducted several events in Spanish with simultaneous English interpretation, and provided transportation to and from UMass. Audio of the events (soundcloud.com/umass-history) has extended the series into podcast feeds across the U.S. and world. Through a collaboration with the regional library system’s initiative, All Hamptons Read, more than 450 local residents read Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge and attended the associated Feinberg Series event that placed the author, historian Erica Armstrong Dunbar, in dialogue with UMass historian Barbara Krauthamer.

The series also reached into K-12 classrooms through our annual History Institute, in which 45 local K-12 educators attended Feinberg events and worked together to incorporate the material into their curricula. Participating teachers received professional development points or graduate credit and built lesson plans for students based on the events; all reported that they applied insights from the series in their schools and classrooms. We were grateful to partner with Safire DeJong (the Collaborative for Educational Services) and historian and former teacher Ousmane Power-Greene (Clark University and David Ruggles Center for History & Education) in developing this offering.

As a testament to the series’ success, each event brought together between 200 and 450 students, faculty, and community members. Astoundingly, more than 1,300 people attended the keynote lecture by Rev. Dr. William J. Barber II. In total, an estimated 4,000 people participated in series events. An additional 1,450 people (and counting) listened to the series podcast, and countless more viewed the Facebook livestream, making it one of the most well-attended academic series ever offered by the UMass Amherst.

“This series sparked my interest in history. I left each event with more books I want to read and with historical insights that changed the way I understand the world.”

Beyond the numbers, feedback from participants underscored the impact the series made on their lives and on UMass-community relations. Community members who had not often come to campus for events attended this series regularly, and have since begun attending other university events. “This series sparked my interest in history. I left each event with more books I want to read and with historical insights that changed the way I understand the world,” remarked a local educator who attended all but two events. Participants made new connections, leading to exciting collaborations and projects, including a local history teacher who is proposing a new high school class based on what she learned in the series. Many community members reached out to us to share how the histories presented in the events transformed their understanding of the world. Several went so far as to say that the series changed their life. The history department is honored to have offered such a meaningful series of opportunities for people throughout Western Massachusetts to gather in critical conversation and community collaboration.

Jess Johnson, Sigrid Schmalzer, and Kevin Young, Co-chairs of the 2018 Feinberg Series

We invite you to tune in. Audio of select Feinberg Family Distinguished Lecture Series events is available at www.soundcloud.com/umass-history.

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With the 2019 National Council on Public History Conference located just down the road from Amherst in Hartford, Connecticut, UMass Amherst public historians arrived in impressive numbers. Everywhere I looked at the Connecticut Convention Center, I saw fellow cohort members, faculty, and alumni milling about, presenting their work, attending workshops, exhibiting posters, and otherwise participating in this foremost gathering of U.S. public historians. I joined a panel of public historians, ranging from professors to archivists to students like myself, in developing The Inclusive Historian’s Handbook. This will be a forthcoming free digital booklet for museum professionals and public historians to encourage accessibility, inclusivity, and equity. The environment was supportive and inspiring, as I sat beside alumnus Austin Clark ’18MA and saw Marla Miller and many peers in the audience. Among the dozens of sessions I attended, I found the roundtables “S51: Black Public History from Post-Emancipation to Neo-Emancipation” and “S61: When All is Gone, Whose Story Remains? Protecting Coastal Heritage in a Changing Climate” most informative and thought-provoking. In S51, Hannah Scruggs of Montpelier shared how, as a black woman, working at a former plantation-now-museum feels like an act of spatial reclamation. In S61, Kate Cell of the Union of Concerned Scientists described the emotional and physical toll of losing cultural heritage to rising seas. These two presentations epitomized the reasons I gravitate to public history: how historically marginalized communities claim and make space, and how we can respond to the loss of beloved spaces as climate change continues to threaten their existence. I look forward to exploring these themes deeper in my public history career and as a new member of NCPH’s New Professional and Graduate Student Committee. Thank you to all UMass folks who organized the event, especially NCPH President Marla Miller and LJ Woolcock ’19MA for their superb organizational skills and caring.

 

Article Alumni Dinner

In May of 2003, I graduated from UMass Amherst with a degree in history. Since that time, I have often thought of Amherst and longed to return. For this reason, I jumped at the chance when asked to attend a history department student-alumni dinner. This April I returned to UMass after my nearly 16-year absence.

To provide a little background, I was born and raised in Central Wyoming and, at the age of 22, I set out on a journey to the unknown. I had never been past the Mississippi River when I packed all my things—and loaded up my young family—into a U-Haul truck and drove the 2,000 miles east to Amherst. I have so many fond memories of being in Western Massachusetts—it is a place where I grew intellectually and into adulthood. Amherst was a wonderful place for me to call “home” for a few years as part of my young life.

This April, after the passage of so much time, I was anxious, and a bit nervous, as I made my way up I-91 from Hartford to Amherst. Driving into town, I took a tour down memory lane. I went by the apartments in South Amherst that I lived in as a student. I went to the park where my young daughter would play. I drove through the Hampshire College campus, which my younger brother briefly attended. And I made my way to the campus where I’d spent most my time while living in Amherst. Parts of the campus were the same as they had been when I was a student. I made the trip up to the W.E.B. DuBois library stacks where I’d spent countless hours studying. It looked unchanged. Other parts of the campus were hardly recognizable. The campus has grown and expanded substantially in the past 15 years.

As for the most important part of my visit, I was privileged to meet current history students and discuss with them their plans, goals, and dreams. What an impressive group of young people! I was struck by their personal stories. Many had overcome substantial obstacles to get to, and excel, at UMass. I was impressed with their character and drive.

In addition to the students, I was privileged enough to get to visit with some of my favorite professors when returning. It was heartening to see that the thoughtful, dedicated, and engaged professors are still shaping the way the young UMass graduates will think about and approach the problems we face in today’s world and political climate. All of this reinforced for me the vital importance of keeping quality public education accessible in our country. It also reminded me of how fortunate I was to have had UMass shape me as a young adult.

To all those who have the opportunity to go back and visit our alma mater, I would strongly encourage them to do so. It was a remarkably rewarding experience. I will not let another 16 years pass before returning.

Ian Sandefer (’03) is a trial lawyer who provides personal injury and criminal defense representation throughout Wyoming. 

We sat down with author, public historian, and PhD student Ross Caputi to discuss his first book, The Sacking of Fallujah: A People’s History, co-written with Richard Hil and Donna Mulhearn and coming out this year with the University of Massachusetts Press. The Sacking of Fallujah reveals how the people of Fallujah themselves experienced the U.S. sieges and sacking of the city, and the casualties, political destabilization, and infrastructure crises they faced in the aftermath. In this interview, Caputi discusses how the book came to be, and the reparations framework utilized by the Islah Reparations Project, which public historians can use to think about reparations and the forms they should take.

The Sacking of Fallujah is now available for pre-order on Amazon and from the UMass Press website. The book’s official release date is April 8, 2019.

Caputi’s next project focuses on the Italian village of Grumento Nova, and combines historical linguistics with oral history to document its distinctive language and how it has been shaped by modernization. You can find out more about his work here, and follow his Twitter @caputi_ross.

Article A Fruitful Year for the Graduate History Association

The Graduate History Association has had an exciting and productive year of community building and professional development. GHA members actively participated in regular meetings, frequent off-campus outings, the mentor program, and a TA strategies lunch. Through a series of roundtable discussions initiated by history graduate students and sponsored by the history department, GHA members and department staff and faculty discussed important questions of race, labor, capital, and the role of historians in ongoing struggles around these issues. Speakers included Diana Sierra Becerra, Iyko Day, Brittany Frederick, John Higginson, Jess Johnson, Perri Meldon ’19MA, Traci Parker, and Sigrid Schmalzer,

A successful Graduate History Association Conference, The Routes of History: Knowing Pasts, Envisioning Futures, welcomed presenters from various disciplines and universities across and outside the United States. Among the 35 presenters at the conference were UMass history graduate students Amy Breimaier, James During, Ragini Jha, Shay Olmstead, and Kendall Taivalkoski ’19MA. A keynote address by James Young, distinguished professor emeritus, about the process of memorial art particularly drew a crowd. Also well-attended, a workshop led by Maria Salgado-Cartagena, people’s historian of the Puerto Rican diaspora in Holyoke, provided tools for using community histories to empower youth activism.

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For some, Herter Hall is an eyesore. Our department’s little-loved home is a concrete monolith, one of several scattered across the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass), the flagship campus of the state of Massachusetts. Like many Brutalist buildings, Herter Hall’s concrete form seems unyielding, resistant to the very landscape it is situated in and to the individuals that make the building their academic home. We are supposed to accommodate to Herter Hall, rather than the other way around. This is a common critique of Brutalist buildings, and one that I hear my colleagues and classmates intone with frequency. Yet too often in (sometimes heated) conversations about Brutalism, we deny ourselves agency to influence and shape our built environment—especially if that built environment is concrete. But when Herter Hall was papered with recruitment flyers for a white nationalist hate group earlier this semester, a group of graduate students and faculty in the History department and the Languages, Literature, and Classics (LLC) department co-opted Herter’s concrete shell to articulate a response. Our own act of resistance aimed to transform Herter from an anonymous academic building to one that conveyed a  united front against acts of hate.

When the Coletti Brothers of Boston designed Herter Hall in 1969, they added one of a growing number of Brutalist buildings cropping up across campus. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the UMass administration hoped to shift our campus’s identity from a small state agricultural college to one of the nation’s leading research universities. Brutalism was the integral visual keystone to this process, reflecting the university’s commitment to providing modern, state-of-the-art academic facilities. Beyond simply increasing physical space to a growing university, this commitment invoked a much broader ideal of public investment in education. As a modern architectural style, Brutalism hoped to explore concrete’s “fundamental properties,” what UMass professors Marla Miller and Max Page refer to as “the search for the ‘rough poetry’ of materials in their raw state.”

While many would think Herter is “rough,” few would associate it with “poetry.” But Herter’s more poetic sensibilities resonate in the simplicity of its engineering, its interior functions laid bare upon the exterior. The building’s stairwells and classrooms protrude from the west façade, while repeating rows of windows on Herter’s east side make obvious the building’s interior functions of offices and seminar rooms. In other words, Herter Hall clearly expresses itself in a way that most observers can understand.

That Herter can be so easily “read” by those passing by or waiting to catch a bus from Haigis Mall proved fundamental in articulating a response to instances of racism and hatred. Earlier in the semester a white nationalist hate group peppered Herter Hall with recruitment posters, one of a growing number of racist and hateful acts occurring across campus. This incident deeply disturbed many of us who call Herter Hall our academic home. UMass was just the latest in a string of universities targeted by this specific group, and this racist incident was just one of many targeting people of color on UMass’s campus this fall. As soon as the posters appeared, their perpetrators disappeared into anonymity. Such an act of hatred is frustratingly nebulous; our counterparts two floors below us in LLC and those of us in the History department hoped to formulate a response as concrete as Herter Hall. Our small coalition in Herter joined a growing number of cross-campus efforts to address racism including statements from UMass chancellor Kumble Subbaswamy and History department chair Brian Ogilvie, the “Hate Has No Home At UMass” campaign, and coordinated efforts from the Graduate Student Senate and Employee Organization. For our History and LLC coalition in Herter, we settled on utilizing Herter’s Brutalist form as our own canvas to reflect a unified front against hate at UMass.

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LLC, located on the fourth and fifth floors, and History, located on the sixth and seventh floors, each selected phrases grounded in our own academic fields of study. LLC chose “Zivilcourage,” a German phrase historically connected to anti-fascist movements that roughly translates to “courage to stand up for one’s beliefs.” Conversations within the History department resulted in the selection of “Solidarity” and “Resistance,” two words that carry immense historical weight for a number of social movements that hoped to achieve greater equity in the world around them. We painted each letter of these phrases on large sheets of paper to hang within individual office and seminar room windows, thus utilizing Herter’s rows of windows that face out onto Haigis Mall like blank crossword puzzle lines to be filled in.

As Herter’s original Brutalist design intended to reflect its interior properties, so too have we projected our values as academics committed to rejecting racism and hatred from UMass onto the exterior of Herter Hall. Likewise, our simple mapping of words and phrases transformed Herter from a monolithic concrete block to a pliable canvas. Our own act of resistance refutes the idea that Brutalism is an architectural style unyielding to human intervention. Rather, we have agency to shape our built environment to better reflect our values as an academic department and a society. It feels as if it is no accident such a response came from within Herter Hall. Brutalism itself remains visually and historically associated with the ideals of a strong public sphere, one increasingly under attack. These ideals, while perhaps obscured behind poor maintenance and dirty concrete, still shine through in acts of resistance, however small, that help unite us in solidarity against acts of hatred.